Insecticide drenches were applied to postharvest field-grown nursery plants harvested as 60-cm-diameter balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for controlling third instars of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam were drench-applied in fall and spring tests at volumes of runoff (1×; ≈2.57 liters per drench per root ball) or twice runoff (2×). Tests also examined consecutive drenches (two, four, or six) and B&B rotation between drenches. Fall-applied drenches did not meet the Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP) standards of ≤1 grub and ranged from 0 to 90% control. However, most fall-applied drenches significantly reduced grub numbers relative to the untreated root balls. Spring-applied drenches were more effective than fall drenches: chlorpyrifos treatments gave 94–100% control, whereas other spring-applied treatments were less consistent, including thiamethoxam (83–100% control) and bifenthrin (61–100% control). Lambda-cyhalothrin was not effective. A higher drench volume (2×) did not significantly improve treatment efficacy; however, grub numbers decreased as the number of drenches increased for fall-applied chlorpyrifos and thiamethoxam and spring-applied bifenthrin. Rotation of root balls significantly reduced grub numbers compared with nonrotated treatments for fall-applied chlorpyrifos (six drenches) and bifenthrin (two or six drenches), but these treatments did not meet DJHP standards. The study indicates chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, and thiamethoxam drenches can control Japanese beetle in the spring and may provide a new postharvest option to certify B&B plants for Japanese beetle.
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Vol. 101 • No. 4