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1 December 2008 Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass
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Oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a pest of turfgrass that may be controlled by applications of synthetic pheromone (Z)-/(E)-7-tetradecen-2-one to disrupt mating. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine release profiles of pheromone from experimental wax-based granules, a proprietary wax granule, and rubber septa commonly used in pheromone traps. Rubber septa loaded with 10, 100, and 300 μg per septum provided steady rates of pheromone release (zero-order) over 4 wk of laboratory evaluation (total = 1.1, 9.0, and 26.9 μg/4 wk, respectively). Septa with 1,000 μg per septum had a significant decline in the rate of pheromone release for this 4-wk exposure time (total = 119 μg/4 wk). A large proprietary wax granule (44 mg per granule, 25% wt:wt pheromone) provided a steady rate of pheromone release (total = 2,347 μg/4 wk per granule). Experimental granules (16 mg per granule) made of soywax with higher pheromone loads (10% wt:wt) approached zero-order release (steady state) (total = 69 μg/4 wk per granule), whereas smaller granules (4 mg per granule) with less pheromone (0.1% wt:wt) provided first-order release profiles (decreasing rate with longer exposure time) (total = 0.35 μg/4 wk per granule). A field trial in turfgrass demonstrated the potential of selected granular formulations to provide effective mating disruption for up to 4 wk, as measured by pheromone trap shutdown. Documenting pheromone release profiles for these experimental granules and rubber septa provides valuable information that will support future field evaluations of mating disruption as a control strategy.

R. W. Behle, A. A. Cossé, C. Dunlap, J. Fisher, and A. M. Koppenhöfer "Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass," Journal of Economic Entomology 101(6), 1856-1863, (1 December 2008).
Received: 15 October 2007; Accepted: 1 June 2008; Published: 1 December 2008

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