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1 February 2009 Toxicity of Botanical Formulations to Nursery-Infesting White Grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
Christopher M. Ranger, Michael E. Reding, Jason B. Oliver, James J. Moyseenko, Nadeer N. Youssef
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Abstract

The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity.

Christopher M. Ranger, Michael E. Reding, Jason B. Oliver, James J. Moyseenko, and Nadeer N. Youssef "Toxicity of Botanical Formulations to Nursery-Infesting White Grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 102(1), 304-308, (1 February 2009). https://doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0140
Received: 2 May 2008; Accepted: 1 September 2008; Published: 1 February 2009
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