Cost is a potential limiting factor in the adoption of mating disruption to control oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). A 3-yr study was conducted in 1-ha blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L, plots to test the possibility of lowering cost by reducing the number of point-source dispensers and pheromone [(Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one] concentrations, while maintaining mating disruption. Trap shutdown, as measured by the disruption index (DI), caged females, and sentinel potted-plants with tethered females were used to assess the success of mating disruption. Disrupted plots had DI values of ≥93% in all years, and a lower percentage of mated females, compared with control plots. However, DI values were ≥95% at ≥50 dispensers per ha. When 25 dispensers containing 0.05 g of active ingredient (AI) were used per hectare, the numbers of males in female cages and larvae in sentinel pots were similar to controls. Thus, dispenser density was critical for successful mating disruption of oriental beetles. Male oriental beetles approach the dispensers at all times of the day according to field observations, indicative of competitive attraction as a potential mechanism for mating disruption. However, at peak activity, greater male attraction was observed to dispensers containing 0.1 g of pheromone than 0.05 or 0.025 g, demonstrating the importance of pheromone rate. Although dispensers continued to emit pheromone for at least 7 wk in the field, emission rates dropped to levels close to 0 after 3 wk. We conclude that deployment of ≥50 dispensers/ha at ≥0.1 g (AI) per dispenser is the most effective rate for mating disruption of oriental beetle in blueberries.
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Vol. 102 • No. 2