We analyzed the accumulation of six phytohormones and phytohormone-related compounds in a wheat, Triticum aestivium L., genotype, ‘Molly’, after attacks by avirulent and virulent Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), larvae, respectively, and we examined the expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway by Northern blot analysis. Compared with uninfested plants, attacks by avirulent larvae resulted in increased accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) by 11.3- and 8.2-fold, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) by 36.4-and 18.7-fold, 18:3 fatty acid by 4.5- and 2.2-fold, and 18:1 fatty acid by 1.8- and 1.9-fold at 24 and 72 h post-initial attack (hpia), respectively, but an 20% decrease in JA accumulation at 24 hpia at the attack site. Attacks by the virulent larvae did not affect the accumulation of SA, OPDA, and 18:3 and 18:1 fatty acids but dramatically increased the concentration of auxin (AUX) from undetectable in uninfested plants to 381.7 ng/g fresh weight at 24 hpia and 71.0 ng/g fresh weight at 72 hpia in infested plants. Transcript levels of genes encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene oxide synthase, and Arabidopsis storage protein 2 were increased after avirulent larval attacks but decreased after virulent larval attacks. Our results suggest that OPDA and SA may act together in wheat resistance to the Hessian fly, whereas AUX may play a role in the susceptibility of wheat plants. The increased OPDA accumulation after avirulent larval attacks was at least partially regulated through gene transcription.
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Vol. 103 • No. 1