Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest associated with hazelnuts, Corylus avellana L. (Fagales: Betulaceae), in North America. This study investigated the feasibility of entomopathogenic nematodes as an alternative strategy for filbertworm control. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted between October 2007 and May 2008 in Benton County, OR, to evaluate the ability of the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) to infect filbertworm larvae and pupae. The susceptibility of larvae with and without hibernacula as well as pupae to S. carpocapsae was tested in laboratory bioassays using nematode concentrations between 40 and 200 infective juveniles (IJs) per cm2. Percentage of nematode infection was not significantly affected by the presence of hibernacula (infection range, 90–92%) compared with larvae without hibernacula (80–95%), or by pupal stage (50–75%) compared with larvae (65–75%). In additional field trials, the effect of nematode rate, water application rate, and orchard floor cover on nematode efficacy was determined in October 2007 and May/June 2008. Sentinel filbertworm larvae in plots with either bare soil or debris (leaves, twigs, husks, and blank nuts) were treated with S. carpocapsae at rates ranging from 40 to 150 IJs per cm2 applied in 75 or 190 ml/m2 water. Average filbertworm mortality ranged from 2 to 11% and from 50 to 78% in October and May, respectively. Larval mortality increased with increasing nematode concentration, but was not significantly affected by water application rate or orchard floor cover. Our experiments suggest that S. carpocapsae can play a role in the control of filbertworm larvae overwintering on the orchard floor.
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Vol. 103 • No. 2