Onset of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death was evaluated in eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), exposed to several concentrations (45, 90, 135, and 180 ppm) of indoxacarb and to several (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) exposure periods. Abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death occurred in a predictable sequence: disorientation, ataxia, and morbundity followed by death. In general, higher concentrations and longer exposure periods resulted in faster onset of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death. The average onset time of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death was faster for groups of termites compared with individuals exposed to similar concentrations and periods of contact. The importance of onset times of abnormal behaviors as another important measure of the toxicity of slow-acting toxicants is discussed.
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Vol. 103 • No. 3