Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, branchlets were systemically treated with imidacloprid and bioassayed with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), and predators. After 10 d, two hemlock woolly adelgid predators, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae Sasaji & McClure (Coleoptera: Coc-cinellidae), were allowed to feed on remaining hemlock woolly adelgid for 20 d on branches systemically treated with 1, 10. or 100 ppm imidacloprid. Every 5 d, mortality, mobility (measured as flip time), number of hemlock woolly adelgid consumed, and degree of intoxication of each individual beetle were recorded. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify imidacloprid and some of its major metabolites in hemlock wood tissues and in the predator beetles postmortem. Probit analysis of hemlock woolly adelgid mortality and imidacloprid concentrations recovered from branch wood tissues determined the 30 d LC50 to be 242 ppb. A topical application of imidacloprid to the ventral abdomen of individual beetles resulted in a 6 d LD50 value of 1.8 and 0.71 ng imidacloprid per beetle for L. nigrinus and S. tsugae, respectively. In no-choice tests, L. nigrinus mortality was significantly higher on hemlock branchlets treated with 100 ppm imidacloprid than on controls, but S. tsugae mortality was not. S. tsugae consumed the same number of adelgids on treated branchlets as on controls, but L. nigrinus consumed fewer adelgids from the 100 ppm branchlets than on controls. In choice tests, beetle mortality and flip times were generally not significantly different from controls. At times, both beetle species displayed intoxication symptoms after feeding on adelgids from treated branchlets and imidacloprid was recovered from both beetle species postmortem. These results suggest that systemic imidacloprid displayed both lethal and sublethal effects on these two nontarget predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid.
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Vol. 103 • No. 4