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1 December 2010 Toxicity of Phosphine to Carposina niponensis (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae) at Low Temperature
Liu Bo, Zhang Fanhua, Wang Yuejin
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Carposina niponensis Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae), is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China and presents a problem in some export markets because it is considered a quarantine pest by some countries. Methyl bromide is the only fumigant used for fumigation of apples (Malus spp.) for export. However, phosphine is a candidate replacement that can be applied directly at low temperature. Here, laboratory tests showed that tolerance of different stages of C. niponensis to phosphine fumigation at 0°C differed greatly; first—second-instar larvae were the least tolerant stage and the mature fifth instars were the most tolerant stage. In the mature larvae, fumigation tests, with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.42 to 1.95 mg/liters and exposure periods of 24 h to 14 d at 0°C indicated narcosis when phosphine concentration was ≥1.67 mg/liter and that a 15.52- 8.14-d fumigation period was required to achieve 99% mortality with different phosphine concentrations. The expression of C0.7T = k was obtained, which indicated that exposure time was much more important than concentration of phosphine in mortality of mature larvae of C. niponensis. All results suggested that phosphine fumigation at low temperature offers promising control of C. niponensis infestation in pome fruit.

© 2010 Entomological Society of America
Liu Bo, Zhang Fanhua, and Wang Yuejin "Toxicity of Phosphine to Carposina niponensis (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae) at Low Temperature," Journal of Economic Entomology 103(6), 1988-1993, (1 December 2010).
Received: 3 April 2009; Accepted: 1 August 2010; Published: 1 December 2010

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