Since the discovery of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America in 2000, chemical control has been the most effective method to manage aphid outbreaks. Increased insecticide use in soybean raises the possibility of developing insecticide resistance in soybean aphid, and monitoring insecticide susceptibility is essential to maintain pesticide tools. We developed a simple and reliable aphid-dip bioassay by using a tea strainer that resulted in ≥90% survival in controls. Using this technique, we tested susceptibility of a greenhouse strain of soybean aphid that has never been exposed to insecticides, and field-collected aphid strains from two counties in Michigan. Aphid susceptibility was tested for five insecticides by dipping groups of five aphids in each insecticide dose for 10 s. After 48 h, aphids were classified as dead or alive, and counted. Aphids from all strains were highly susceptible to chlorpyrifos, λ-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, and dimethoate, with LC50 and LC90 values well below the recommended application rates. However, aphids showed less susceptibility after 48 h to neonicotinoid imidacloprid, with higher LC90s and wider fiducial limits. This illustrated the potential limitation of using a 48-h assay to evaluate insecticides with longer-term, sublethal impacts. Nevertheless, this study made use of a simple aphid-dip method to test and compare insecticide susceptibility of soybean aphid. In the event of a field failure, the aphid populations involved can be tested in comparison to a susceptible greenhouse strain to determine the extent of resistance development.
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Vol. 104 • No. 4