The developmental thresholds for Marmara gidosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated in the laboratory by using 17, 21, 25, 29, and 33°C. The lowest mortality occurred in cohorts exposed to 25 and 29°C. Other temperatures caused >10% mortality primarily in egg and first and second instar sap-feeding larvae. Linear regression analysis approximated the lower developmental threshold at 12.2°C. High mortality and slow developmental rate at 33°C indicate the upper developmental threshold is near this temperature. The degree-day (DD) model indicated that a generation requires an accumulation of 322 DD for development from egg to adult emergence. Average daily temperatures in the San Joaquin Valley could produce up to seven generations of M. gulosa per year. Field studies documented two, five, and three overlapping generations of M. gidosa in walnuts (Juglans regia L; Juglandaceae), pummelos (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.; Rutaceae), and oranges (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck; Rutaceae), for a total of seven observed peelminer generations. Degree-day units between generations averaged 375 DD for larvae infesting walnut twigs; however, availability of green wood probably affected timing of infestations. Degree-day units between larval generations averaged 322 for pummelos and 309 for oranges, confirming the laboratory estimation. First infestation of citrus occurred in June in pummelo fruit and August in orange fruit when fruit neared 60 mm in diameter. Fruit size and degree-day units could be used as management tools to more precisely time insecticide treatments to target the egg stage and prevent rind damage to citrus. Degree-day units also could be used to more precisely time natural enemy releases to target larval instars that are preferred for oviposition.
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Vol. 104 • No. 4