The psyllid Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the principal pests of pear (Pyrus spp.) orchards and, along with its natural enemies, needs to be carefully monitored for correct integrate pest management and biological pest control decision making. We compare sampling techniques and develop sampling methods for C. pyri and Pilophorus gallicus Remane (Heteroptera: Miridae). Four pear orchards were sampled periodically from 2007 to 2010 in southern Spain by beating branches into funnels or 45-cm-diameter nets and taking shoot samples. Different sampling techniques were compared, and several sampling methods were assayed for adults and nymphs of C. pyri and P. gallicus. Psylla adult and P. gallicus counts in the nets and funnels were similar and closely correlated. Counts of C. pyri adults in the funnels and nets were higher than on shoots, but all measures were closely correlated. The number of nymphs on shoots and leaves was correlated, as were the counts on leaves within shoots. A guide for choosing the sampling unit in cost/precision terms is given. C. pyri nymphs and adults showed an aggregated distribution, whereas P. gallicus had a less-crowded spatial distribution. Enumerative sequential sampling was evaluated for both insects by using the different sampling techniques by resampling experimental data. The negative binomial distribution fitted the experimental data gathered using the different sampling techniques for C. pyri adults and P. gallicus. The use of binomial sampling is discussed for the two insects and the costs involved are compared with those implied in the sequential enumerative method.
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Vol. 104 • No. 5