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1 December 2012 Hot-Water Phytosanitary Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in ‘Ataulfo’ Mangoes
Emilio Hernández, Pedro Rivera, Bigail Bravo, Jorge Toledo, José Caro-Corrales, Pablo Montoya
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We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48°C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1°C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28,92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1°C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that ‘Ataulfo’ mangoes weighing <329 ±2.11 g and at risk immature Mediterranean fruit fly infestation should be immersed for 95 min at 46.1-47°C to ensure that the fruit pulp remains at this temperature for 10 min. An efficacy test was conducted that involved treating 730 mangoes, with an average weight of 326 ±2.11 g (mean ±SE) and infested with 84 ±1.15 first instars. In this test, none of the 61,720 larvae treated survived. The confirmatory test was performed using commercial equipment in which 1,112 infested mango fruit weighing an average of 329 ±2.11 g were treated. Each fruit was previously infested with an average of 59 ±0.61 first instars (=65,825 total larvae) of which none survived. The data collected on mango quality indicate that hot water immersion for 95 min at 46.1–47°C can produce a more uniform fruit-color and positively modify the pH (producing more palatable fruits), but can also produce a loss of firmness and weight (5%). Taking all factors into consideration, we conclude that this treatment is sufficient to meet quarantine restrictions against C. capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d.

© 2012 Entomological Society of America
Emilio Hernández, Pedro Rivera, Bigail Bravo, Jorge Toledo, José Caro-Corrales, and Pablo Montoya "Hot-Water Phytosanitary Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in ‘Ataulfo’ Mangoes," Journal of Economic Entomology 105(6), 1940-1953, (1 December 2012).
Received: 19 July 2011; Accepted: 3 August 2012; Published: 1 December 2012

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fruit fly
hot water
mango fruit
thermal sensitivity
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