Hymenopteran parasitoids have been shown to be of potential value in tick biocontrol. Tick parasitoids has been reported only once in Brazil, over 95 yr ago when Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) was reported parasitizing Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) nymphs in Rio de Janeiro. Herein, we report the occurrence of Ixodiphagus spp. in ticks from three different regions of Brazil. In the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil, parasitoids were detected in R. sanguineus nymphs on three occasions, during August 2009 and September 2010 (dry season), and January 2011 (rainy season). All parasitoids found in northeastern Brazil were identified as I. hookeri. In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (west—central Brazil), one Amblyomma sp. engorged nymph was shown to be parasitized by I. hookeri. In the state of Rondônia (northern Brazil), one Amblyomma sp. engorged nymph was parasitized by Ixodiphagus texanus (Howard). Because Ixodiphagus spp. are present in ecologically distinct and geographically distant areas of Brazil, they are of potential use for biocontrol in the country.
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