The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose >400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities.
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