The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of agriculture worldwide that has proved to be particularly adept at evolving insecticide resistance. Several mechanisms that confer resistance to many insecticide types have been described in M. persicae. We measured the resistance status of nine multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of this aphid species collected in Chile. MLGs were identified using microsatellite markers, and these MLG clonal populations were measured for the presence of modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE), kdr and super kdr mutations, and enhanced carboxyl esterase activity. Toxicological bioassays were used to estimate aphid LC50 when treated with metamidophos (organophosphate), pirimicarb (dimethyl carbamate), cyfluthrin (pyrethroid), and imidacloprid (neonicotinoid). Two MLGs presented >20-fold resistance to pirimicarb, which was associated with the MACE mutation in the heterozygous condition. The kdr mutation was found in only four MLGs in the heterozygous condition and they showed resistance ratios (RR) to cyfluthrin of less than sevenfold. The super kdr mutation was not detected. Enhanced carboxyl esterase activity was predominantly found in the susceptible (S) to first level of resistance (R1) with RR to metamidophos less than eight-fold. Finally, RR to imidacloprid was also less than eight-fold in all MLGs tested. A few MLGs with resistance to pirimicarb were found, while susceptibility to cyfluthrin, metamidophos and imidacloprid was still predominant. A significant positive correlation between imidacloprid tolerance with pirimicarb resistance was detected, as well as between imidacloprid and metamidophos tolerance. With the increase in the use of neonicotinoid insecticides, better rotation of insecticides with different modes of action will be necessary to prevent further development of M. persicae insecticide resistance in Chile.
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