The parasitoid Trichogramma confusum Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many lepidopterans throughout the world. Extensive toxicological tests have clarified the toxic effects of insecticides on trichogrammatids, but only few studies have examined these effects on T. confusum. Among the seven classes of tested chemicals, organophosphates and carbamates exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to the parasitoid with LC50 values ranging from 0.037 (0.030–0.046) to 0.29 (0.23–0.38) and from 0.17 (0.15–0.19) to 1.61 (1.45–1.79) mg AI L-1, respectively. They were followed by phenylpyrazoles, avermectins, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids, which induced variable toxicity responses with LC50 values ranging from 0.63 to 45.26, 1.06–21.73, 3.89–19.36, and 0.24–754.2 mg AI L-1, respectively. In contrast, insect growth regulators (IGRs) showed the least toxicity to the parasitoid with LC50 values ranging from 3,907 (3,432–4,531 ) to 10,154 (8,857–12,143) mg AI L-1. A risk quotient analysis indicated that neonicotinoids (except thiamethoxam), avermectins, pyrethroids, IGRs, and phenylpyrazoles are safe, but organophosphates and carbamates are slightly to moderately or dangerously toxic to T. confusum. This study provides informative data for implementing both biological and chemical control strategies in integrated pest management of lepidopterans.
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