Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) puparia are of regulatory concern in exported hay, and drying after harvest was evaluated as a cultural control technique for bales shipped from the western states. In total 16,836; 31,122; and 48,051 puparia were tested under drying conditions in environmental chambers, open air on location, and hay windrows, respectively. Regression lines for percentage of total adults emerging from puparia exposed to simulated drying conditions for 1–7 d in environmental chambers was significant for 1 September, Kittitas Valley, WA; 3 June, East Columbia Basin, WA; 15 May and 15 July, San Joaquin Valley, CA; and 15 May, 20 July, and 15 September, Imperial Valley, CA. In open air drying on location for 1–7 d, total percentage of puparia surviving to adults for all exposure days was 0.4% for 18 June, Kittitas Valley; 1.2% for 15 May, San Joaquin Valley; and 0% for 16 July, Imperial Valley; and significantly different between controls and exposure durations. In hay windrow drying for 1–6 d, total percentage of puparia surviving to adults for all exposure days was 5.4% on 28 June and 24.2% on 7 September in timothy, Phleum pretense, in the Kittitas Valley; 3.8% on 28 June in timothy in the East Columbia Basin; 2.2% on 20 July in alfalfa, Medicago sativa, in the San Joaquin Valley; and 6.3% on 21 July in Sudan grass, Sorghum bicolor sudanensis, in the Imperial Valley. The number of puparia surviving to adults in open air drying and in windrows was significantly different between controls and exposure durations for all test dates and locations. Puparial survival in field tests was related to mild temperatures and high humidities. Hay drying with subsequent field baling, storage, and export bale compression is discussed in relation to a systems approach for quarantine control of Hessian fly in exported hay.
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Vol. 106 • No. 3