Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T. radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citr-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T. radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (<5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk.
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