A multiple quarantine treatment was developed to control Hessian fly puparia, Mayetiola destructor (Say), the stage of regulatory concern in exported hay. In a commercial test using 51,589 puparia, no insects survived to the adult stage after exposure to bale compression at 137 kg/cm2 and fumigation with 61 g/28.3 m3 hydrogen phosphide for 3d. The puparia were fumigated in infested wheat seedlings in cloth bags inside compressed timothy bales placed in different locations in three replicate freight containers in a heated building. Fumigant concentrations were 345-522 ppm on day 1; 580–824 ppm on day 2; and 680–861 ppm on day 3. Monitored temperatures were <20°C in all locations allowing the fumigation temperature to be established at ≥20C. Copper detection plate corrosion values were severe inside the freight container doors, and moderate in the middle of bales in all locations, providing visual confirmation of exposure to hydrogen phosphide. Hydrogen phosphide residues in exposed hay bales were found in trace amounts, below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tolerance of 0.1 ppm for animal feeds. Timothy hay used in the commercial test is the representative species for all previously exported hay and straw species. The new multiple quarantine treatment is proposed for use with all previously tested bale sizes and wrapper styles for which 3-d fumigation data has been reported, and for bales and wrappers derived from those tested.
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Vol. 107 • No. 3