Intrinsic toxicities of chlorantraniliprole, fipronil, and imidacloprid were evaluated with topical applications on worker termites. Worker termites were exposed to substrates treated with formulated chlorantraniliprole to study contact toxicity, tunneling, and postexposure behaviors. The intrinsic toxicities (LD50, ng/termite) of chlorantraniliprole (1.25, 0.96, and 0.44) and fipronil (0.12, 0.11, and 0.13) at 11 d were similar for workers from three termite colonies. Imidacloprid toxicity (LD50) values were highly variable among the workers from three different colonies, values at 11 d ranging from 0.7 to 75 ng/termite. Termite workers exposed to sand and soils treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm exhibited delayed mortality and, for most of the exposure times, it took >5 d to observe 90–100% mortality in termite workers. Exposure to chlorantraniliprole-treated sand (50 ppm) for as little as 1 min stopped feeding and killed 90–100% of the workers. Tunneling (≈ 2 h) in different soil types treated with chlorantraniliprole at 50 ppm, even those with high organic matter (6.3%) and clay content (30%), caused immediate feeding cessation in worker termites and mortality in the next 7–14 d. Worker termites exposed for 1 and 60 min to sand treated with chlorantraniliprole (50 ppm) were able to walk normally for 4 h after exposure in most cases. Delayed toxicity, increased aggregation, and grooming were observed in exposed termites and discussed in the context of horizontal transfer effects within termite colonies.
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Vol. 107 • No. 5