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1 December 2014 Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers
L. Bian, X. L. Sun, X. M. Cai, Z. M. Chen
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The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrime-thoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6–10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01–3.77 d), while esters of 6–12 carbons had the shortest (1.53–2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≈17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≈24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse.

© 2014 Entomological Society of America
L. Bian, X. L. Sun, X. M. Cai, and Z. M. Chen "Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers," Journal of Economic Entomology 107(6), 2023-2029, (1 December 2014).
Received: 11 February 2014; Accepted: 1 August 2014; Published: 1 December 2014

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