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1 December 2014 Geographical and Temporal Variability in Susceptibility to Cry1F Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations in Brazil
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The genetically modified maize TC1507 event with the cry1F gene (Cry1F maize) has been used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil since the 2009–2010 cropping season. As part of the insect resistance management program, we conducted studies to determine the baseline susceptibility to Cry1F before the widespread planting of Cry1F maize. Subsequently, we evaluated the geographical and temporal variability of susceptibility to this toxin in populations of S. frugiperda collected from major maize-growing regions in Brazil.Thebaseline susceptibility to Cry1F was determined using a diet-overlay bioassay for a susceptible reference population and four field populations of S. frugiperda.We then monitored the susceptibility to Cry1F in 43 populations of S. frugiperda sampled in nine States of Brazil between 2011 and 2013. In the baseline study, the MIC50 (the concentration that inhibits molting to second instars in 50% of individuals) ranged from 3.59 to 72.47 ng Cry1F toxin per centimeter square. Based on the upper limit of the MIC99 value of the joint analysis from the baseline susceptibility data, the concentrations of 200 and 2,000 ng of Cry1F toxin per centimeter square were defined as diagnostic concentrations for potentially resistant individuals, and these were used to monitor the susceptibility of S. frugiperda to Cry1F. Survival at 2,000 ng Cry1F toxin per centimeter square increased significantly throughout the cropping seasons in S. frugiperda populations from São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goiá s, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Paraná. The highest survival (>50%) was reached in populations collected from Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Paraná during the 2012–2013 cropping season. Therefore, a significant decrease in susceptibility to Cry1F was detected in S. frugiperda throughout cropping seasons, especially in regions with intensive maize production in Brazil, according to field-evolved resistance that has been demonstrated in Brazilian populations.

© 2014 Entomological Society of America
Juliano R. Farias, Renato J. Horikoshi, Antonio C. Santos, and Celso Omoto "Geographical and Temporal Variability in Susceptibility to Cry1F Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations in Brazil," Journal of Economic Entomology 107(6), (1 December 2014).
Received: 4 May 2014; Accepted: 1 August 2014; Published: 1 December 2014

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