Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel] and swampbay [Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent] throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and currently threatens avocado (Persea americana Miller) in Florida. To curtail the spread of laurel wilt, effective attractants are needed for early detection of the vector. Phoebe oil lures were the best known attractant for X. glabratus, but they are no longer available. The current detection system uses manuka oil lures, but previous research indicated that manuka lures have a short field life in Florida. Recently, cubeb oil was identified as a new attractant for X. glabratus, and cubeb bubble lures are now available commercially. This study compared trapping efficacy and field longevity of cubeb and manuka lures with phoebe lures that had been in storage since 2010 over a 12-wk period in south Florida. In addition, terpenoid emissions were quantified from cubeb and manuka lures aged outdoors for 12 wk. Captures were comparable with all three lures for 3 wk, but by 4 wk, captures with manuka were significantly less. Equivalent captures were obtained with cubeb and phoebe lures for 7 wk, but captures with cubeb were significantly greater from 8 to 12 wk. Our results indicate that cubeb bubble lures are the most effective tool currently available for detection of X. glabratus, with a field life of 3 months due to extended low release of attractive sesquiterpenes, primarily α-copaene and α-cubebene.
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1 February 2015
Cubeb Oil Lures: Terpenoid Emissions, Trapping Efficacy, and Longevity for Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Paul E. Kendra,
Wayne S. Montgomery,
Mark A. Deyrup,
Nancy D. Epsky