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1 April 2015 Effect of European Chafer Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Winter Wheat and Role of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments in Their Management
J. M. Renkema, C. D. Difonzo, J. L. Smith, A. W. Schaafsma
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Abstract

A critical density of four third-instar larvae per 900 cm2 for European chafer, Rhizotrogus (Amphimallon) majalis (Razoumowsky), in winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., was derived from smallplot greenhouse and field experiments conducted under favorable crop growing conditions at several Ontario and Michigan locations from 2001–2003. On average, plant weight was decreased by 14% and plant stand by 11% between zero and four larvae per 900 cm2. In a commercial field under moisture stress, a yield loss of 35% occurred at a density of two third-instars per 900 cm2. In short-term greenhouse experiments, density-dependent mortality was evident, whereas low larval recovery in field experiments indicates a high level of overwintering mortality, regardless of larval density. Winter wheat seed treatments of neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam provided protection from damage by larvae, but the level of protection was inconsistent between greenhouse and field small plots, and there was no apparent difference in protection amongst active ingredients or between application rates. There was little evidence of larval mortality owing to seed treatment, which supports the suggestion that neonicotinoid insecticides protect seedlings from loss by a nonlethal mechanism. Overall, we estimate that a low rate of neonicotinoid insecticide used at larval densities just less than the critical density will mitigate winter wheat losses by 85%.

© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
J. M. Renkema, C. D. Difonzo, J. L. Smith, and A. W. Schaafsma "Effect of European Chafer Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Winter Wheat and Role of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments in Their Management," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(2), 566-575, (1 April 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov002
Received: 25 April 2014; Accepted: 14 December 2014; Published: 1 April 2015
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KEYWORDS
critical density
European chafer
neonicotinoid insecticide
Rhizotrogus majalis
winter wheat
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