Mayetiola destructor (Say) is a serious pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in North America, North Africa, and Central Asia. Singly deployed resistance genes in wheat cultivars have provided effective management of Hessian fly populations for >50 yr. Thirty-five H genes have been documented. Defense mediated by the H gene constitutes strong selection on the Hessian fly population, killing 100% of larvae. A mutation in a matching Hessian fly avirulence gene confers virulence to the H gene, leading to survival on the resistant plant. As the frequency of virulence rises in the population, the H gene loses its effectiveness for pest management. Knowing the frequency of virulence in the population is not only important for monitoring but also for decisions about which H gene should be deployed in regional wheat breeding programs. Here, we present a novel assay for detecting virulence in the field. Hessian fly males were collected in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina using sticky traps baited with Hessian fly sex pheromone. Utilizing two PCR reactions, diagnostic molecular markers for the six alleles controlling avirulence and virulence to H13 can be scored based on band size. Throughout the southeast, all three avirulence and three virulence alleles can be identified. In South Carolina, the PCR assay was sensitive enough to detect the spread of virulence into two counties previously documented as 100% susceptible to H13. The new assay also indicates that the previous methods overestimated virulence in the field owing to scoring of the plant instead of the insect.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 110 • No. 4