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24 May 2017 Attraction of the Euwallacea sp. near fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Quercivorol and to Infestations in Avocado
John A. Byers, Yonatan Maoz, Anat Levi–Zada
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Abstract

The Euwallacea sp. near fornicatus (Euwallacea sp. 1 hereafter) feeds on many woody shrubs and trees and is a pest of avocado, Persea americana Mill., in several countries including Israel and the United States. Quercivorol baits are commercially available for Euwallacea sp. 1 females (males do not fly), but their attractive strength compared to other pheromones and potential for mass trapping are unknown. We used sticky traps baited with quercivorol released at 0.126 mg/d (1×) and at 0.01×, 0.1×, and 10× relative rates to obtain a dose–response curve of Euwallacea sp. 1 attraction. The curve fitted well a kinetic formation function of first order. Naturally infested limbs of living avocado trees had attraction rates equivalent to 1× quercivorol. An effective attraction radius (EAR) was calculated according to previous equations for each of the various baits (1× EAR = 1.18 m; 10× EAR = 2.00 m). A pole with six sticky traps spaced from 0.25–5.75 m in height had captures of Euwallacea sp. 1 yielding a mean flight height of 1.24 m with vertical flight distribution SD of 0.88 m (0.82–0.96 m, 95% CI). The SD with specific EAR was used to calculate EARc, two-dimensional EAR (1× EARc = 0.99 m; 10× EARc = 2.86 m), for comparison with other insect pheromone traps and for use in simulations. The simulation methods described previously were performed with combinations of 1–16 traps with 1–50 aggregations per 9-ha plot. The simulations indicate mass trapping with quercivorol could be effective if begun in spring before Euwallacea sp. 1 establishes competing sources of attraction.

© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
John A. Byers, Yonatan Maoz, and Anat Levi–Zada "Attraction of the Euwallacea sp. near fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Quercivorol and to Infestations in Avocado," Journal of Economic Entomology 110(4), 1512-1517, (24 May 2017). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox151
Received: 22 February 2017; Accepted: 4 May 2017; Published: 24 May 2017
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