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30 June 2017 Life History of Parthenolecanium spp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Urban Landscapes of the Southeastern United States
Ernesto Robayo Camacho, Juang-Horng Chong, S. Kris Braman, Steven D. Frank, Peter B. Schultz
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Abstract

This study was conducted to better understand the life history of Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché) and Parthenolecanium quercifex (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), and to develop degree-day models for crawler emergence of the two soft scale species in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Both species were univoltine in the southeastern United States. In South Carolina, eggs hatched from mid-April to early June; second instars began to appear in September and migrated to twigs to overwinter in October; and third instars and adults appeared in mid-March to early April. Each parthenogenetic female produced on average 1,026 ± 52 eggs. Fecundity was positively correlated to the fresh weight, length, width, and height of gravid females. Gross reproductive rate (GRR) was 695.98 ± 79.34 ♀/♀, net reproductive rate (R°) was 126.36 ± 19.03 ♀/♀, mean generation time (TG) was 52.61 ± 0.05 wk, intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.04 ♀/♀/wk, and finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.04 times per week. Crawlers first occurred across Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in 2011–2013 when 524–596 Celsius-degree-days (DDC) had been accumulated with the single sine estimation method, or 411–479 DDC with the simple average method, at the base temperature of 12.8 °C and the start date of 1 January. These regional models accurately predicted the date of crawler emergence within 1 wk of the actual emergence in 2014.

© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Ernesto Robayo Camacho, Juang-Horng Chong, S. Kris Braman, Steven D. Frank, and Peter B. Schultz "Life History of Parthenolecanium spp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Urban Landscapes of the Southeastern United States," Journal of Economic Entomology 110(4), 1668-1675, (30 June 2017). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox170
Received: 21 March 2017; Accepted: 25 May 2017; Published: 30 June 2017
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