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3 May 2019 Effects of Constant and Fluctuating Temperatures on Development Rates and Longevity of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)
Ivan Milosavljević, Kelsey A. McCalla, David A. Ratkowsky, Mark S. Hoddle
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The effects of fluctuating and constant temperatures on the development and longevity of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, and Argarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid sourced from Pakistan and released in California for the classical biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), were examined. The influence of six fluctuating temperatures that averaged 15, 20, 25, 30, 32, and 35°C, over 24 h on the development times and longevity of male and female D. aligarhensis were quantified and compared to six constant temperatures set at the same average temperatures. The development rates of immature stages of D. aligarhensis as a function of temperature were modeled using one linear and four nonlinear models. Fluctuating temperatures had significant effects on parasitoid development times and longevity which differed across experimental temperatures. Degree-days required for completion of cumulative development of D. aligarhensis were significantly different being 21% lower under fluctuating temperature regimens when compared with constant temperatures. The lower temperature threshold estimates above which development occurred were estimated to be lower under constant than fluctuating temperatures. The estimated values of upper and optimum temperature limits were similar for individuals reared under constant and fluctuating temperatures. Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis lived longer at constant intermediate temperatures and for shorter times at constant lower temperature extremes when compared with their fluctuating temperature counterparts. Daily thermal fluctuations significantly influenced life history parameters of D. aligarhensis and should be considered when assessing likelihoods of establishment and impacts of this parasitoid on D. citri across diverse citrus-growing climates.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Ivan Milosavljević, Kelsey A. McCalla, David A. Ratkowsky, and Mark S. Hoddle "Effects of Constant and Fluctuating Temperatures on Development Rates and Longevity of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(3), 1062-1072, (3 May 2019).
Received: 16 October 2018; Accepted: 19 December 2018; Published: 3 May 2019

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biological control
development rates
Diaphorina citri
nonlinear regression models
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