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13 February 2020 Burial and Compaction of Sandy Soils to Prevent Emergence of Adult Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) at the Soil Surface
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Abstract

Stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) remain a significant pest affecting livestock and rural communities on the Swan Coastal Plain around Perth, Western Australia. Vegetable crop residues remaining after harvest enable stable fly development. Left untreated they can produce from several hundred to >1,000 stable fly/m2 of post-harvest residues. We studied the effect of burial and compaction of sandy soils on adult emergence of stable fly and house fly (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Adults of both fly species can move up through 50 cm of loose, dry sand, however at depths greater than 60 cm, emergence rapidly declines with <5% of adults surviving under 100 cm of soil. Burial of stable fly larvae and pupae under 15 cm of soil followed by compaction using a static weight dramatically reduced adult emergence. Moist soil compacted at ≥3 t/m2 completely prevented stable fly emergence whereas house fly emergence was not affected. One t/m2 of compaction resulted in <5% emergence of stable fly buried as pupae. Soil that was easily compactible (i.e., high silt, fine sand and clay content) reduced stable fly emergence more than soil with more coarse sand and low clay content. This study demonstrates the potential for a novel and chemical-free option for controlling stable fly development from vegetable crop post-harvest residue. Field trials are needed to confirm that burial and compaction of vegetable post-harvest residues using agricultural machinery can dramatically reduce the subsequent emergence of adult stable fly on a large scale.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
David Francis Cook, Robert A. Deyl, Jeremy B. Lindsey, Mario F. D'Antuono, Donald V. Telfer, and Ian R. McPharlin "Burial and Compaction of Sandy Soils to Prevent Emergence of Adult Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) at the Soil Surface," Journal of Economic Entomology 113(3), 1315-1322, (13 February 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa015
Received: 13 August 2019; Accepted: 11 January 2020; Published: 13 February 2020
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