The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busk, 1916), is one of the most important pests in apple orchards in southern Brazil. Chemical control is still the most commonly used strategy for pest control. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance evolution of seven South Brazilian populations to four insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, lufenuron, chlorpyrifos, and fenitrothion). Bioassays were paired with metabolic analyses of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterases (α-NA and β-NA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to understand the possible role with phytosanitary strategies in the insects' susceptibility. Insect populations were collected in the municipalities of Campo doTenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas, Fraiburgo, São Joaquim, and Vacaria and multiplied in the laboratory. Two susceptible and two resistant populations were used as references. The bioassays showed that five populations were considered more resistant to organophosphates, six to lufenuron and two to chlorantraniliprole when compared with the sensitive population. None of the field populations had greater resistance than the resistant laboratory population. The enzymatic activity of AChE and GST was elevated in most of the populations that were less susceptible to organophosphates and lufenuron. The populations originating from orchards that used sexual confusion techniques had the greatest susceptibility based on toxicological and biochemical bioassays. Populations under pressure from various compounds had high GST, α and β-NA activity. There is evidence that a diversity of control strategies can provide better resistance management.
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Vol. 113 • No. 3