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28 January 2022 Comparing Production and Efficacy of Cordyceps javanica With Cordyceps fumosorosea
Robert W. Behle, Shaohui Wu, Michael D. Toews, Kristin R. Duffield, David I. Shapiro-Ilan
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A newly discovered entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps javanica (Friedrichs & Bally) Samson & Hywel-Jones (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) strain Wf GA17 was compared with the commercial Cordyceps fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Apopka 97 strain for liquid-culture production, formulation, insecticidal efficacy, and storage stability under laboratory conditions. We compared culture media with carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios of 10:1, 30:1, and 50:1 for these two isolates. A third strain, C. fumosorosea strain ARSEF 3581, had previously been optimized for liquid-culture production of blastospores at 10:1 C:N served as an added control. These seven cultures were processed by spray drying with skim milk powder, stored at 25°C to evaluate storage stability, and assayed for insecticidal activity against Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) neonates. Final blastospore concentrations were not significantly different among cultures, ranging from 4.47 to 9.88 × 108 spores/ml. Fungal biomass decreased and final glucose concentrations increased with increasing C:N ratios, indicating better fungal growth with higher nitrogen concentrations. Product yields from the spray dryer (grams per liter culture) increased with increased C:N ratios while spore concentrations decreased, ranging from 2.27 to 7.17 × 109 spores/g. There were no significant differences for insecticidal efficacy among the seven treatments. Spores produced in 10:1 C:N ratio media retained viability longer than spores produced in other media. Cost of ingredients decreased with increasing C:N ratios, such that the 30:1 media may yield the most economical product. The raw material cost needed for application was 1.4× greater for Wf GA17 compared with Apopka 97, a difference that could be erased by optimization of culture conditions.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2022. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Robert W. Behle, Shaohui Wu, Michael D. Toews, Kristin R. Duffield, and David I. Shapiro-Ilan "Comparing Production and Efficacy of Cordyceps javanica With Cordyceps fumosorosea," Journal of Economic Entomology 115(2), 455-461, (28 January 2022).
Received: 27 July 2021; Accepted: 20 December 2021; Published: 28 January 2022

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entomopathogenic fungus
Liquid culture
production cost
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