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19 October 2022 Two Microsatellite Types Within NAD6 Gene Help to Distinguish Populations and Infer the Migratory Route of the Invasive Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in China
Chao Li, Yingying Song, Lili Li, Ashley E. Tessnow, Junsheng Zhu, Xiumin Guan, Wenxiu Guo, Hongying Cui, Zengbin Lu, Suhong Lv, Yi Yu, Xingyuan Men
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Abstract

Spodoptera frugiperda is a major agricultural pest that has invaded China since January 2019. Given that most of the individuals present in China carried the diagnostic rice-strain mtDNA (COI-RS), there was no efficient method to distinguish populations of S. frugiperda. In this study, we identified and characterized two variant microsatellite alleles in the mitochondrial NAD6 gene of S. frugiperda retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Center GenBank. We then sequenced partial NAD6 genes containing the microsatellite region and the diagnostic COI barcoding gene (used to distinguish the corn-strain and the rice-strain) of 429 invasive S. frugiperda individuals that were collected from the main infested regions in China during 2019–2020. Our data indicates that two kinds of interrupted repeat sequences, (ATA)4T(ATA)3 and (ATA)5T(ATA)3, exist in the microsatellite region which we defined as the deletion type (NAD6-D), and the insertion type (NAD6-I) based on the repeat units' differentiation, respectively. The presence of these two microsatellite types in the mtDNA genome of S. frugiperda was further confirmed with the sequencing results in 429 samples. Moreover, NAD6-I and NAD6-D types were both present in individuals with COI-RS, while only NAD6-D type was detected in the COI-CS individuals. Interestingly, the two microsatellite types suggested a possible geographic distribution: the western migratory route (Yunan and Chongqing) was comprised exclusively of NAD6-I type, while both NAD6-I and NAD6-D types were identified in the predicted eastern migration trajectories (Hainan, Guangxi, Shandong, etc.). These results suggested that NAD6-D and NAD6-I types may be useful in distinguishing between populations, analyzing the evolutionary mechanism of mtDNA microsatellite polymorphism, inferring the migratory route of S. frugiperda in China, and developing precise and integrated control strategies for S. frugiperda.

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© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Chao Li, Yingying Song, Lili Li, Ashley E. Tessnow, Junsheng Zhu, Xiumin Guan, Wenxiu Guo, Hongying Cui, Zengbin Lu, Suhong Lv, Yi Yu, and Xingyuan Men "Two Microsatellite Types Within NAD6 Gene Help to Distinguish Populations and Infer the Migratory Route of the Invasive Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in China," Journal of Economic Entomology 115(5), 1409-1416, (19 October 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toac114
Received: 22 February 2022; Accepted: 4 July 2022; Published: 19 October 2022
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KEYWORDS
genotyping
geographic distribution
invasive pest
microsatellite
mitochondrial DNA
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