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19 October 2022 Response of Parasitic Wasp Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Cabbage Plants of Two Varieties: Olfactory Spectra of Males and Females
Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Dominykas Aleknavičius, Violeta Apšegaitė, Vincas Būda
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Abstract

The parasitoid Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) oviposits in larvae of the large cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.). Many parasitoids are attracted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the plant that the host insects feed on. The objectives of the study were to identify the VOCs in leaves of two varieties of cabbage (white cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba and cauliflower, B. oleracea var. botrytis) damaged by P. brassicae caterpillars which elicit antennal responses of C. glomerata, and characterize the olfactory spectra of females and males. Leaf extracts were analyzed by using gas chromatography equipped with an electroantennographic detector (GC–EAD) and GC–mass spectrometry. In total, 32 olfactory-active compounds for C. glomerata in cauliflower and 24 in white cabbage were revealed. The females perceived more compounds than males. Hexan-1-ol, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-octenal, benzylcianide, tetradecanal, and two unidentified compounds elicited EAG responses in females but not in males. Females were more sensitive to (E)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, and pentadecenal, whereas males showed higher sensitivity to (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate, heptanal, (Δ)-2-pentenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and octanal. The olfactory spectrum of C. glomerata was expanded from 18 to 41 VOCs emitted by different varieties of cabbage damaged by P. brassicae caterpillars. Eight EAG-active VOCs were common for all cabbage varieties. In tritrophic interactions, benzylcyanide can serve as an important signal for C. glomerata females indicating damage of cabbage caused by P. brassicae caterpillars. The data are useful for development of a push–pull strategy for P. brassicae control, based on parasitoid behavior regulation by VOCs.

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Dominykas Aleknavičius, Violeta Apšegaitė, and Vincas Būda "Response of Parasitic Wasp Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Cabbage Plants of Two Varieties: Olfactory Spectra of Males and Females," Journal of Economic Entomology 115(5), 1464-1471, (19 October 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toac135
Received: 15 April 2022; Accepted: 5 August 2022; Published: 19 October 2022
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KEYWORDS
cabbage
electroantennography
insect olfaction
olfactory-active compound
parasitoid
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