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28 December 2022 Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Cry1, Cry2, and Vip3Aa Proteins in Bt Corn and Cotton in the Americas: Implications for the Rest of the World
Fei Yang, Zhenying Wang, David L. Kerns
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Abstract

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is an economically important pest of corn, cotton, and soybean, and a major target of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins. In recent years, this insect has invaded most countries in Africa, Southeastern Asia, and Oceania, posing a great threat to food security. Successful use of Bt crops in the U.S. indicates that Bt technology can be an effective tool for management of S. frugiperda in other countries. Evolution of insect resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt technology. There are many factors that may affect the rate of evolution of insect resistance to Bt crops, which include initial resistance allele frequency, the dose of Bt protein in Bt crops, cross-resistance, complete/incomplete resistance, and fitness costs associated with resistance. Currently, the high dose/refuge and gene-pyramiding approaches are the two main IRM strategies used in the U.S. to combat evolution of insect resistance. In this paper, we review research on resistance of S. frugiperda to Cry1, Cry2, and Vip3Aa proteins. Specifically, we discuss the resistance allele frequencies of S. frugiperda to these three proteins in the field, the genetic basis of resistance, the patterns of cross-resistance, and the fitness costs associated with resistance. Experience and knowledge gained from these studies provide valuable information for the successful use of Bt crop technology for control of S. frugiperda worldwide.

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Fei Yang, Zhenying Wang, and David L. Kerns "Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Cry1, Cry2, and Vip3Aa Proteins in Bt Corn and Cotton in the Americas: Implications for the Rest of the World," Journal of Economic Entomology 115(6), 1752-1760, (28 December 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toac099
Received: 11 February 2022; Accepted: 26 May 2022; Published: 28 December 2022
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KEYWORDS
Bt resistance
cross-resistance
fitness cost
inheritance
Spodoptera frugiperda
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