The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is an economically important pest of corn, cotton, and soybean, and a major target of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins. In recent years, this insect has invaded most countries in Africa, Southeastern Asia, and Oceania, posing a great threat to food security. Successful use of Bt crops in the U.S. indicates that Bt technology can be an effective tool for management of S. frugiperda in other countries. Evolution of insect resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt technology. There are many factors that may affect the rate of evolution of insect resistance to Bt crops, which include initial resistance allele frequency, the dose of Bt protein in Bt crops, cross-resistance, complete/incomplete resistance, and fitness costs associated with resistance. Currently, the high dose/refuge and gene-pyramiding approaches are the two main IRM strategies used in the U.S. to combat evolution of insect resistance. In this paper, we review research on resistance of S. frugiperda to Cry1, Cry2, and Vip3Aa proteins. Specifically, we discuss the resistance allele frequencies of S. frugiperda to these three proteins in the field, the genetic basis of resistance, the patterns of cross-resistance, and the fitness costs associated with resistance. Experience and knowledge gained from these studies provide valuable information for the successful use of Bt crop technology for control of S. frugiperda worldwide.