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28 December 2022 Chemical Control and Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Johnnie Van den Berg, Hannalene du Plessis
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Insecticides and genetically modified Bt crops are the main tools for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Since its invasion of Africa, the Far East, and Australia where Bt crops are largely absent, insecticide use has increased and reduced susceptibility to several insecticides used for decades in its native distribution area have been reported. Poor efficacy at field-level is sometimes incorrectly ascribed to pest resistance, while numerous other factors influence efficacy at field-level. In this paper, we review the history of insecticide resistance in S. frugiperda and discuss the influence that life history traits, migration ecology, and chemical control practices may have on control efficacy and resistance evolution. The indirect role that poor national policies have on pesticide use practices, and indirectly on control efficacy and selection pressure is discussed. Evidence shows that local selection for resistance drives resistance evolution. Integrated pest management, rather than reliance on a single tactic, is the best way to suppress S. frugiperda numbers and the over-use of insecticides which selects for resistance.

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Johnnie Van den Berg and Hannalene du Plessis "Chemical Control and Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 115(6), 1761-1771, (28 December 2022).
Received: 1 April 2022; Accepted: 23 June 2022; Published: 28 December 2022

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insecticide resistance management
invasive pest
pest Management
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