Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (fall armyworm) is an extremely destructive insect pest that causes crop losses, especially cereal production across the world. Its management is challenged by its high migratory ability, polyphagous nature, high fecundity level, and short life cycle. It has become a serious threat across the globe that requires proactive and coordinated regional and global interventions. Although synthetic insecticides have been widely utilized to control the pest, there are numerous inherent challenges associated with the overreliance and overuse of these chemicals, e.g., toxicity to humans, destruction of natural pest enemies and pollinators, environmental and food contamination, pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, and resistance development. Plant-derived pesticides such as Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globulus, Jatropha curcas, Lantana camara, Phytolacca dodecandra, and Piper guineense have been evaluated under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions to control S. frugiperda. We are certain that the substantial potential of these plants under field conditions could be enhanced and promoted together with existing plant-based products (registered) for use against S. frugiperda as an alternative in integrated pest management schemes. Therefore, this review highlights challenges and prospects that will help refocus and increase research attention on the development and application of botanical pesticides under field conditions rather than only under laboratory and control conditions to increase the commercialization and adoption rate of this technology across the globe.
challenge and prospect