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20 March 2023 Monitoring resistance of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Canada to Cry toxins produced by Bt corn
Jocelyn L. Smith, Yasmine Farhan
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The first case of field-evolved resistance in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) producing a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner toxin was discovered in Nova Scotia, Canada in 2018. This case involved resistance to Bt corn producing Cry1Fa toxin. As a mitigation response, Bt corn hybrids producing only Cry1Fa were replaced in that region with hybrids producing two or three Bt toxins targeting O. nubilalis. In this study, we collected O. nubilalis in several corn-growing regions of Canada during 2018 to 2020 and tested their progeny for susceptibility to four Bt toxins produced by currently available Bt corn that targets O. nubilalis: Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, Cry1A.105, and Cry2Ab. Based on toxin concentrations killing 50% of larvae from 23 field-derived strains relative to two susceptible laboratory strains, the resistance ratio was at least 10 for Cry1Fa for 12 strains (52% of strains) consisting of 10 strains from Nova Scotia, as well as strains from near Montreal, Quebec and Roseisle, Manitoba. We found low but statistically significant resistance relative to at least one of two susceptible strains for Cry1Ab (23% of strains), Cry1A.105 (45% of strains), and Cry2Ab (14% of strains), with maximum resistance ratios of 3.9, 5.8, and 2.0, respectively. These results provide key information for addressing O. nubilalis resistance to Bt corn in Canada.

Jocelyn L. Smith and Yasmine Farhan "Monitoring resistance of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Canada to Cry toxins produced by Bt corn," Journal of Economic Entomology 116(3), 916-926, (20 March 2023).
Received: 25 September 2022; Accepted: 27 February 2023; Published: 20 March 2023

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Bt corn
Ostrinia nubilalis
resistance management
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