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12 October 2023 Frequency and diversity of indoxacarb resistance in Australian Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Lisa J. Bird, Paul W. Walker, Linda J. Drynan
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Annual indoxacarb resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) populations collected from various crops in Australia was monitored between 2013 and 2023. Resistance frequency determined by F2 screening using a predetermined discriminating dose of indoxacarb, was lowest in the 2013–2014 and 2015–2016 seasons at 0.0164 and 0.0246, respectively. Resistance then increased significantly to a ten-year high of 0.0869 in 2018–2019 but declined to 0.0557 in 2019–2020 during a severe drought, remaining relatively stable thereafter to 2023. Indoxacarb resistance was first detected in H. armigera collected from maize in the Gwydir valley, New South Wales, in 2013 (strain GY7-39). In 2017, a second indoxacarb resistant H. armigera strain (UN1U3-10) was isolated from a population collected in chickpeas in the Liverpool Plains, New South Wales. Indoxacarb resistance of this strain was characterized to evaluate its potential to compromise the ongoing effectiveness of insecticide resistance management strategies in Australian farming systems. Survival at the discriminating dose of indoxacarb in UN1U3-10 was 28.9, 52.6, 86.7, and 92.9% in the F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. Following introgression with a susceptible strain and reselection with the discriminating dose of indoxacarb, the resistance ratio of UN1U3-10 was approximately 800-fold. Resistance was autosomal, incompletely dominant and conferred by more than 1 locus. While indoxacarb resistance in UN1U3-10 did not confer to emamectin benzoate or spinetoram and there was no evidence of major cross-resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1A, Cry2A or Vip3A, there was 5-fold reduced sensitivity to chlorantraniliprole. Indoxacarb resistance was suppressed by approximately 10-fold by PBO with no synergism byTPP or DEM, suggesting the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzymes. A stability analysis indicated a fitness cost may be associated with the genes that confer resistance in the UN1U3-10 strain.The potential risk for diverse indoxacarb resistance in the Australian H. armigera population is discussed.

Lisa J. Bird, Paul W. Walker, and Linda J. Drynan "Frequency and diversity of indoxacarb resistance in Australian Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 116(6), 2154-2165, (12 October 2023).
Received: 2 August 2023; Accepted: 28 September 2023; Published: 12 October 2023

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cotton bollworm
fitness cost
resistance management
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