The toxicity of imidaloprid to the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.), was measured in bioassays, greenhouse trials, and field trials. An LD50 of 53 and 86 ppm for the oral/topical applications of imidacloprid confirmed a low toxicity for this chemical when compared with carbofuran as a standard. However, 100% debilitation was observed at concentrations of ≥1 ppm. Grasshoppers exhibited leg flexing, abdominal quivering, and tremors before becoming motionless and appearing dead. Knockdown was temporary with a high percentage of recovery within 1 h. Efficacy and feeding damage were determined from artificial infestations of M. sanguinipes at the 2nd, 4th, and early tillering growth stages of winter and spring wheat treated with foliar and seed treatments of imidacloprid. All rates of imidacloprid tested resulted in <45% mortality to 4th instar and adult M. sanguinipes in the greenhouse and field. Although efficacy was low, high rates of debilitation in bioassays suggest that improved control may be gained by combining imidacloprid with insect pathogens or additional chemicals.
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Vol. 93 • No. 2