The effect of insecticides on Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner emergence, adult survival, and fitness parameters was investigated. Insecticides tested were lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, thiodicarb, profenophos, spinosad, methoxyfenozide, and tebufenozide. All insecticides, with the exception of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, adversely affected Trichogramma emergence from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) host eggs when exposed at different preimaginal stages of development (larval, prepupal, or pupal). Regardless of the developmental stage treated, none of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the sex ratio or frequency of brachyptery of emerged females. However, the mean life span of emerged T. exiguum females significantly varied among insecticide treatments, and was significantly affected by the developmental stage of parasitoid when treated. Based on LC50 values, spinosad and prophenofos were the most toxic compounds to female T. exiguum adults, followed by lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and thiodicarb. Insecticides field-weathered for four to 6 d on cotton leaves showed no activity against female T. exiguum adults.
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Vol. 93 • No. 3