Resistance to several classes of insecticides was correlated with azinphosmethyl resistance in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in California. In tests of laboratory and field populations, cross-resistance was positively correlated with azinphosmethyl and two organophosphates (diazinon, phosmet), a carbamate (carbaryl), a chlorinated hydrocarbon (DDT), and two pyrethroids (esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin). Additionally, negatively correlated cross-resistance was identified between azinphosmethyl and two other organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion. Patterns of resistance observed in laboratory colonies were confirmed with field bioassays. In bioassays of field populations, azinphosmethyl resistance was observed to increase from 1991 to 1993, although levels of resistance remained <13-fold. Because orchards with azinphosmethyl resistance have had difficulties with suppression of codling moth, and cross-resistance was found for all tested classes of insecticides, strategies for managing resistance will need to be developed so as to protect current and future control tactics. The two insecticides with negatively correlated cross-resistance are discussed as potential tools for resistance management.
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Vol. 93 • No. 3