A house fly strain, ALHF, was collected from a poultry farm in Alabama after a control failure with permethrin, and further selected in the laboratory with permethrin for five generations. The level of resistance to permethrin in ALHF was increased rapidly from an initial 260-fold to 1,800-fold after selection. Incomplete suppression of permethrin resistance by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) reveals that P450 monooxygenase- and hydrolase-mediated detoxication, and one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance to permethrin. The ALHF strain showed a great ability to develop resistance or cross-resistance to different insecticides within and outside the pyrethroid group including some relatively new insecticides. Resistance to beta-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and propoxur (2,400–4,200-, 10,000-, and >290-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, aabys) in ALHF house flies was partially or mostly suppressed by PBO and DEF, indicating that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these insecticides. Partial reduction in resistance with PBO and DEF implies that multiresistance mechanisms are responsible for resistance. Fifteen- and more than fourfold resistance and cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, respectively, were not effected by PBO or DEF, indicating that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are not involved in resistance to these two insecticides. Forty-nine-fold cross-resistance to fipronil was mostly suppressed by PBO and DEF, revealing that monooxygenases are a major mechanism of cross-resistance to fipronil. Multiresistance mechanisms in the ALHF house fly strain, however, do not confer cross-resistance to spinosad, a novel insecticide derived from the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Thus, we propose that spinosad be used as a potential insecticide against house fly pests, especially resistant flies.
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Vol. 93 • No. 4