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1 August 2000 Biotype Composition of Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Populations from the Southeastern, Midwestern, and Northwestern United States and Virulence to Resistance Genes in Wheat
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Twenty-three Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), populations collected in the southeastern (Alabama and Mississippi), midwestern (Indiana), and northwestern (Idaho and Washington) United States from 1995 to 1999 were evaluated for biotype composition based on response to Hessian fly resistance genes H3, H5, H6, and H7H8 in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Biotypes L and O, combined, made up at least 60% of all Alabama populations. Biotype L was predominant in the northern third of Alabama and biotype O in the southern two-thirds of the state. Based on biotype data, wheat cultivars with H7H8 resistance should be highly effective in central and southern Alabama. Fifty-four percent of the Mississippi population consisted of biotype L, and the remaining virulent biotypes (B, D, E, G, J, and O) ranged in frequency from 1 to 17%. The Mississippi population also contained 4% of the avirulent biotype GP. Only biotypes D and L were found in Indiana populations, but biotype L was predominant. Hessian fly populations from Idaho and Washington contained one or more of the virulent biotypes D-H, J, and L-O; however, only biotypes E, F, and G occurred at frequencies >12%. The avirulent biotype GP made up 25–57% of Idaho and Washington populations, a much higher percentage than found in populations from the eastern United States. Although the highest level of virulence in Idaho and Washington populations was found to resistance genes H3 and H6, the frequency of biotype GP would indicate that the currently deployed gene H3 would provide a moderate to high level of resistance, depending on location. Nine of the populations, plus populations collected from the mid-Atlantic state area in 1989 and 1996, also were tested against the wheat cultivar ‘INW9811’ that carries H13 resistance to Hessian fly biotype L and two Purdue wheat lines with unidentified genes for resistance. The H13 resistance in INW9811 was highly effective against all populations tested from the eastern and northwestern U.S. wheat production areas, except Maryland and Virginia. Population studies also indicated that wheat line CI 17960-1-1-2–4-2-10 likely carries the H13 resistance gene, based on the similarity of its response and that of INW9811 to eight fly populations. Continued monitoring of biotype frequency in Hessian fly populations is required for optimal deployment and management of resistance genes in all wheat production areas.

Roger H. Ratcliffe, Sue E. Cambron, Kathy L. Flanders, Nilsa A. Bosque-Perez, Stephen L. Clement, and Herbert W. Ohm "Biotype Composition of Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Populations from the Southeastern, Midwestern, and Northwestern United States and Virulence to Resistance Genes in Wheat," Journal of Economic Entomology 93(4), 1319-1328, (1 August 2000).
Received: 11 November 1999; Accepted: 1 May 2000; Published: 1 August 2000

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