Two formulations of spinosad (NAF-85 and NAF-371) were evaluated to determine the effect of concentration, deposit condition (dried, wet, or topical), and exposure time (0.1–10 h) for toxicant transfer among nestmates in the drywood termite Incisitermes snyderi (Light). Spinosad treatments were compared with two formulations of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) (10% aqueous dilution, 98% dust) and with 35% calcium arsenate dust. Termites were dyed and individually exposed to different treatments for 0.1, 1.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 h, or 0.1 and 1.0 h (DOT and calcium arsenate dust) and then placed with 10 unmarked, untreated nestmates in a petri dish. Spinosad formulations also were evaluated by topical application to dyed termites. Transfer of lethal doses of toxicants between termites was indicated by significant mortality of untreated termites in 25 of 28 treatments by 28 d after introduction of dyed, treated termites. Only three treatments, one spinosad treatment (NAF-371, wet, 1 h) and both DOT 10% solution treatments, resulted in mortality of untreated termites that was not significantly different than that of water-treated controls. Two spinosad treatments and both calcium arsenate dust treatments resulted in >90% (94–98%) mortality of untreated termites by 28 d after introduction. Mortality of untreated termites was significantly different from controls for the two spinosad formulations, depending on condition of deposit and duration of dyed termite exposure to treatments.
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Vol. 94 • No. 1