The effect of low temperature storage combined with slow release sulfur dioxide pads was determined in basic laboratory and large-scale commercial tests on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande; grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn); Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walshingham. Temperatures within the foam containers among the packed clusters decreased from ambient to 2°C within approximately 1 d and ranged from 0.4 to 1.7°C in all tests. Sulfur dioxide concentrations in the foam containers ranged between 0.2 and 1.6 ppm during the 1- to 6-wk storage period in basic tests and 0.5–1.1 ppm during the 1- to 8-wk storage period in the large-scale test. Western flower thrips was completely controlled by a ≥1-wk exposure. Grape mealybug mortality was ≥93% after 2–5 wk exposures and 100% after a 6-wk exposure in basic tests. Pacific spider mite and twospotted spider mite mortality was 98.0 and 99.6%, respectively, after a 6-wk exposure. Mortality of grape mealybug and twospotted spider mite increased significantly at ≥3-wk exposures and Pacific spider mite mortality increased significantly at ≥4-wk exposures. Mortality of the spider mites in general was directly related to the duration of exposure. An 8-wk exposure to low temperature storage combined with slow release sulfur dioxide pads in the large-scale test resulted in 100% mortality of western flower thrips, twospotted spider mite, and omnivorous leafroller. The treatment resulted in <8% survival of grape mealybug and <1% survival of Pacific spider mite in the large-scale test. The combination treatment offers an economical method to attain quarantine control of certain insects and mites.
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Vol. 94 • No. 4