Field trials were conducted in Western Australia to compare captures of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in a standard male-targeted trap (Lynfield trap baited with Capilure) with a synthetic, female-targeted attractant marketed as BioLure. BioLure was also compared with other female attractants (orange ammonia, liquid protein bait) and tested in plastic McPhail, Tephri, and Lynfield traps. The possibility of using one trap to monitor female and male C. capitata populations was also tested by combining BioLure in a trap with the male attractant, Capilure. The results of these experiments show that BioLure outperformed the female-targeted system currently used for monitoring female C. capitata (liquid protein in McPhail trap). More male C. capitata were caught in the standard male-targeted trap, but more females were caught in traps baited with BioLure irrespective of trap type, climate, host tree, or population level. Combined lure traps caught equivalent total numbers of C. capitata to the standard male-targeted trap, but fewer females were captured. Tephri traps caught more flies than McPhail traps, but McPhail traps caught equivalent proportions of females. We compared the performance in commercial orchards of the standard male-targeted trap with a female-targeted trap (McPhail with BioLure). We found that the male trap detected C. capitata more often, caught more flies, triggered the economic threshold more often (66% of the time) and was more cost effective. The male-targeted trap is recommended for use on commercial orchards if cost is limiting. However, using both male and female-targeted traps increases the chance of detecting flies and triggering the economic threshold level. The synthetic female attractant is recommended for replacement of protein hydrolysate lures and may be used in either Tephri or McPhail traps.
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Vol. 95 • No. 2