The oriental beetle Exomala (Anomala) orientalis (Waterhouse) is an important pest of turfgrass in Korean golf courses, and although a few chemical insecticides are registered for insect pest control, they are not very effective against scarab larvae. There is also a growing concern in Korea about the run-off of insecticides into sensitive habitats and the potential for groundwater contamination. A safe and environmentally sound alternative is needed to conventional insecticides. We therefore evaluated six Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates: S. carpocapsae Pocheon, S. glaseri Dongrae, S. glaseri Mungyeong, S. longicaudum Gongju, S. longicaudum Nonsan, and Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan for their potential as bioinsecticides for control of E. orientalis. In addition, we evaluated a reduced chemical insecticide approach that combined chlorpyrifos-methyl with nematodes. In laboratory tests Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan was the most efficacious, causing100% mortality of the second and 38% of the third instars. All other nematode isolates caused 50–80% mortality of the second and 15–30% of the third instars. E. orientalis pupae were highly susceptible to all the Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates except S. carpocapsae. In artificially infested field plots, all Korean nematode isolates cause 50–70% mortality of the third instar. A combination of a one-half rate of Heterorhabditis sp. and a one-half rate chlorpyrifos-methyl was synergistic, causing 91% mortality compared with 69% for the full rate of Heterorhabditis sp. or 22% for the full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl. In a second field trial, a natural infestation of preoverwintering third instar was treated. In this trial a one-half rate of S. longicaudum Nonsan plus a one-half rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl caused 96.8% mortality, much more than a full rate of S. longicaudum Nonsan (45.9% mortality) or a full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl (28.7% mortality). The interactions of Heterorhabditis sp. and S. longicaudum Nonsan with chlorpyrifos-methyl in our field trials appear to be synergistic.
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Vol. 95 • No. 5