Extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides for urban pest control has led to widespread pyrethroid resistance in the German cockroach. A mutation at nucleotide position 2979 (G to C, causing a leucine to phenylalanine change) in the S6 transmembrane segment of domain II of the para-homologous voltage-gated sodium channel has been previously identified in knockdown-resistant cockroaches and demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis to reduce channel sensitivity to pyrethroids. In a recent survey, 83% of pyrethroid-resistant German cockroach populations were found to possess this mutation. A German cockroach strain with a low incidence of the L993F mutation was subjected to selection pressure with cypermethrin and subsequently evaluated over several generations for the knockdown resistance phenotype. Correspondingly, we determined the genotype of individual cockroaches of each population at the 2979 position of the para-homologous gene. Genotype was discerned by development of a polymerase chain reaction method that employed a mismatched primer-template set. A direct relationship was observed between mean knockdown time and the presence of the kdr mutation. Furthermore, individuals homozygous for the kdr mutation exhibited a significantly higher mean knockdown time than heterozygotes or wildtype cockroaches. This is the first report demonstrating the progressive expression of the kdr allele in response to insecticide selection pressure.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 96 • No. 3