The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L., adults were highly susceptible by contact to l-carvone, d-carvone, and dihydrocarvone when compared with the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica F., adults and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.). Adults of R. dominica were more susceptible than the other species to fumigant vapors of l-carvone, d-carvone, and dihydrocarvone. The three larval stages (14-, 16-, and 18-d-old) of T. castaneum progressively became more susceptible with age toward contact toxicity of three test compounds but in fumigant toxicity, 16-d-old larvae of T. castaneum were more susceptible to the three compounds. Comparison of contact and fumigant toxicity of the test compounds indicates that l-carvone and d-carvone possess 24 times more fumigant toxicity toward adults of R. dominica than its contact toxicity. Overall order of toxicity was l-carvone > d-carvone > dihydrocarvone. Egg hatching and subsequent larval and adult survival of T. castaneum were significantly reduced when the eggs of T. castaneum were treated with l-carvone, d-carvone, and dihydrocarvone. l-Carvone completely suppressed egg hatching at the concentration of 7.72 mg/cm2. Data on feeding-deterrent indices indicate the high potency of l-carvone as feeding-deterrent in order of S. oryzae adults > T. castaneum adults > R. dominica adults > T. castaneum larvae.
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Vol. 96 • No. 5